Multiple Choice Answers

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1. Smita studies two different cohorts over a 50-year period, testing each subject every five years. Smita is using a(n) _____ design. 

longitudinal
cross-sectional
sequential
experimental

2. A researcher is going to do a correlational study dealing with playing video games and intelligence. Because she is using this particular method, she will not be able to _____.
measure the variables quantitatively
determine the direction of the relationship between these two variables
determine the magnitude of the relationship between these two variables
determine whether one of these variables causes changes in the other

3. Orlaith is interested in studying the impact of growing up during the Great Depression on the saving and spending habits of individuals. Orlaith’s perspective is best described as a _____ perspective.
life-course
life-span
social-cognitive
psychosocial

4. If tallness is dominant and designated as “T” and shortness is recessive and designated as “s,” who would likely be short?
Bing, who is “sT”
Crosby, who is “Ts”
Danny, who is “ss”
Kay, who is “TT”

5. How would you create an individual who will definitely have blue eyes?
Make sure he or she has a pair of homozygous chromosomes for blue eyes.
Make sure he or she has a pair of heterozygous chromosomes for eye color.
Make sure he or she has a pair of alleles for eye color.
Make sure he or she has 1 recessive gene for blue eyes.

6. A knowledgeable nutritionist would tell a pregnant mother that in order to reduce the risk of having a baby born with spina bifida, the mother needs to make sure that she is ingesting an adequate amount of _____.
vitamin A
iron
vitamin E
folic acid

7. The sample taken during an amniocentesis comes from _____.
the lining of the uterus
inside the body of the fetus
fluid surrounding the fetus
the umbilical cord

8. What was the most critical lesson about teratogens learned from studies on the use of the drug DES by pregnant women?
Sometimes what appear to be teratogens actually are harmless drugs.
Infants in the late fetal period appear to be the most at risk for impact from drug-related teratogens.
Sometimes the effects of teratogens are not apparent until long after exposure.
Females appear to be at much greater risk from teratogens.

9. Research on prenatal exposure to video display terminals (VDTs) has indicated that_____.
the most likely impact involves mental retardation
VDT exposure has more impact on mom than fetus
VDTs can safely be used by pregnant women
the radiation levels of VDTs are similar to those of a common X-ray

10. Just after the birth of her son Nelly, mom Kelly was informed that little Nelly’s neural tube did not properly close during his prenatal development. This would mean that Nelly will be diagnosed with _____.
spina bifida
muscular dystrophy
cerebral palsy
sickle-cell anemia

11. Thymine and cytosine are _____.
types of genes
examples of the first neurotransmitters produced in the brain
types of twins
examples of the basic chemical compounds that form the double helix of a DNA molecule

12. Troy is very interested in the field of fetal medicine. Given this, he would most likely be fascinated by a book entitled _____.
Afterbirth Care and You
The Benefits of Healthy Eating Before Pregnancy
Fixing Birth Defects Before Birth
The Importance of Childhood Inoculations

13. Which of the following statements about increased stress and prenatal development is false?
Increased stress can weaken a woman’s immune system.
Women under stress are more likely to smoke cigarettes and drink alcohol and less likely to eat right and exercise.
Increased stress will result in the mother secreting hormones that increase the heart rate and activity level of the fetus.
None of the above options are false–all of the given statements are true.

14. Dr. Acuity is studying the sensing of color by researching the structure and development of cones. Where does she need to look to find these structures?
The retina of the eye
The frontal lobes of the brain
The rear lobes of the brain
The pupil of the eye

15. Carmela is struggling in the “autonomy versus guilt and shame” stage of psychosocial development. What aspect of her psychosocial development will result from her successful resolution of this conflict?
Hope
Wariness
Will
Purpose

16. Who is most likely exhibiting a complex emotion?
Fyodor, who expresses joy when being held by his mother
Alyosha, who is angry at her mother
Dmitri, who is afraid of the neighbor’s pet dog
Katarina, who is proud of her new cat

17. If a parent told you, “My 1-year-old and I just participated in a study utilizing a ‘Strange Situation,'” you would most accurately respond, _____.
“I hope that your child is securely attached.”
“I hope that your child does not have any attention problems.”
“I hope that your child demonstrated autonomy.”
“I hope that your spouse took part in the study at the same time.”

18.  Which is the best example of a psychological force in the development of attachment?
An infant’s smiling and crying behavior
An internal working model
A mother’s responsiveness to her infant
Temperament

19.  Which aspect of Sunshine Day Care Center’s advertisement is inconsistent with your text’s description of quality day care?
Low teacher/student ratios
Many educational programs
New, energetic staff each day
Regular, frequent parent-teacher meetings

20.  Suppose that Sherry is a mother who is feeling guilty about sending her 20-month-old daughter off to day care. Assuming Sherry is sending her daughter to a quality day care center, should she be worried?
No, as long as Sherry provides “good mothering” when she is with the child at home.
No, because day care makes children more cooperative.
Yes, because children younger than two who are in day care experience far more negative effects than positive effects.
Yes, but only because her child is female.

21. Five-year-old Bud and 13-year-old Linnie are both taught a new memory strategy. They are then given a task on which the strategy proves effective. The next day, the children are given a memory task similar to the one given on the previous day. What should you expect to happen?
Neither Bud nor Linnie will use the memory strategy learned on the previous day.
Bud will use the memory strategy learned on the previous day while Linnie will likely not.
Linnie will use the memory strategy learned on the previous day while Bud will likely not.
Both Bud and Linnie will use the memory strategy learned on the previous day.

22. Theresa has just come to realize that in order to learn, she must focus her attention on her teacher, not her classmates. This indicates an advance in Theresa’s _____ skills.
divergent thinking
scaffolding
sensory memory
metacognitive knowledge

23.  If asked to list key symptoms for ADHD, you should avoid saying _____.
“inarticulation”
“overactivity”
“inattention”
“impulsivity”

24. Julie watches her sister swing her pet cat by the tail and watches as her sister gets punished for that behavior by her parents. Consequently, Julie learns not to swing her pet cat by the tail. Which term best describes this scenario?
A negative reinforcement trap
Counterimitation
Indulgent parenting
Direct instruction

25. If you wanted to raise a child who is smart and self-reliant, you should adopt a(n) _____ parenting style.
authoritative
authoritarian
indulgent-permissive
indulgent-uninvolved